KAMIANETS-PODILSKYI HISTORICAL COMPLEX (Khmelnytsky region, ’мельницька область)
The official name of the complex is "Old fortress" (—тара фортец€) and it is really old. According to architectural research, it dates from the 11-12 centuries. There are underground expositions in the fortress that reveal pages of its history. The city is included into UNESCO World Heritage List.
How to get: From Kyiv you can get by car (about 400 km) and by train (#623K) or Podilsky express (#177). Train #623K departs Kyiv Central Railway Station at 20.04 and arrives to Kamianets-Podilskyi at 7.02. Back way: train #624ƒ that departs Kamianets-Podilskyi at 20.51 and arrives to Kyiv at 7.32. Price ≈ 62-88 UAH per ticket.
Podilsky express departs Kyiv Central Railway Station at 16.39 and arrives to Kamianets-Podilskyi at 23.28. Back way: Podilsky express#178 that departs Kamianets-Podilskyi at 2.05 (a.m.) and arrives to Kyiv Central Railway Station at 8.55. Price ≈ 68-108 UAH.
Also known as Kyiv Monastery of the Caves, it is a historic Orthodox Christian monastery in Kyiv. Lavra was founded as the cave monastery in 1015 and since that time it has been a preeminent center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe (it was considered Orthodox Christianity's equivalent of Rome or Jerusalem). Lavra was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
KHOTYN FORTRESS (Khotyn, Chernivtsi region, „ерн≥вецька область)
Khotyn Fortress, located on the right bank of the Dniester river, is a striking monument of the 13th-14th cc. fortification.
In the 2nd half of the 13th c., the Genoese built a stone fortress at the site of wooden fortifications, which remainders have been found in the Castle courtyard.
In the 2nd half of the 15th c., the fortress was fundamentally rebuilt and strengthened. Strong walls 4.5 m thick and 30-32 m high, and towers 30-35 m high were erected. The biggest one is the Northern Tower (11.5 m x 13 m) that protected the fortress from the north and was the last Fortress stronghold.
SOFIYVSKY PARK (Uman, Cherkasy region, „еркаська область)
SAINT SOFIA CATHEDRAL (Kyiv, ињв)
St. Sophia Cathedral is the world famous historical and architectural monument of the first half of the 11th century.
It is included into the UNESCO World Culture Heritage List. The centre of the Sophia Monastery is the most unique structure of the ancient Rus' architecture Ц the magnificent 13-domed St Sophia Cathedral (1037).
It was named after the St Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople (from the Greek word УSophiaФ meaning УwisdomФ). It was constructed as the main Metropolitan church of Kyiv Rus' in honour
of the victory of the ancient Rus' army over pagan nomads. 260 sq m of mosaics and about 3,000 sq m of frescoes from the 11th c. are preserved in the Cathedral.
The vault of the main altar contains the magnificent УOrantaФ, a six meter fresco of the Mother of God. This wall that Oranta is painted on is called the УInviolable WallФ,
as it is preserved in its original condition and is not deteriorating, notwithstanding the age. Kyivites believe that this cathedral and the Mother of God УOrantaФ are protectors of the city,
and as long as the cathedral stands, nothing will threaten the city. On the second floor of St Sophia, unique mosaics and frescoes dating from the beginning of the 12th c. from St Michael's Golden-Domed
Cathedral are displayed.