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Ukraine means "The land near the border" (u(near)+krai(border, edge))
Orest Subtelny "History of Ukraine"
Orest Subtelniy

First settlements

Fertile lands, temperate climate, rivers full of fish and forests rich in game - since olden times Ukraine was known as a favorable land for inhabitation and settling.

According to the scientists, the primitive (pithecanthropus) appeared on the territory of present-day Ukraine about 200 thousand years ago in the epoch of the early Stone Age or Palaeolith.

First settlers of the Ukrainian lands appeared on our area, probably, traveling to the coasts of the Black Sea through the Caucasus and the Balkans. They have still retained signs of the primitive origin small brain, low forehead, prognathous jaw and big teeth. Though held themselves erect and had completely developed and very skilful hands.

Circa between the 120-40 centuries B.C. already perfected man - Neanderthal man settled on broader territory of Ukraine. As is well known, in the epoch of the late Palaeolith in the middle of the last ice period (40-10 c. B.C.) a type of man that exists nowadays was developed - Cro-Magnon man {Homo Sapiens}. About 800 primitive settlements have been fixed on Ukrainian lands referring to this epoch. The total number of the population was approximately about 20 thousand people. Topographical memorial groups testify that separate settlements of 5-8 men of certain patrimonial community have already been organized in groups, obtaining the features of early tribe grouping, in other words the elements of life socialization.

By the end of the mesolite, fundamental civilization changes are observed, named neolithic revolution,

and the period from the VI to the III centuries B.C. is marked out as a separate epoch neolith, that is Stone Age. Epoch-making transition of primitive man to reproduction agriculture farming and cattle breeding that resulted on the territory of Ukraine in cultural and agricultural zones development different in the way of life agricultural and cattle-breeding as well as hunting and fishing zones, where local, kindred patrimonial tribes with the common features of material culture have been organized.

The scientists single out in neolith its late phase eneolith (the end of the IV-III centuries B.C.) characterized by the appearance of the first metal copper, used not only for ornaments but also for weapons and tool. Household effects have been developed at the same time: people began to use mattock and draft-cattle, domesticated horse and sheep, improved ceramic ware technology production. The population has increased. People settled new territories, appeared special tight natural habitats archeologists call them historical and cultural regions inhabitants of which differed in material culture and way of life, devotions and, as it is supposed, in language. The most significant memorials of eneolith in Ukraine is associated with so the called Trypillya tribes. This name originates from the village of Trypillya of Kyiv, where the famous archeologist Vikentij Khvojka have found remains of this culture for the first time. As it was cleared up with time, this culture existed since the second half of the IV century to the end of the III century B.C. on the great settlement tract at the meeting point of the Dnipro and Dniestr Rivers approaching on the south the Black Sea steppes and on the north Volyn and Kyiv Polissya of the Desna River.

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